Magyar

Ubuntu stand up and work!

This is a Ubuntu (9.10) setup guide for general usage on a total empty/new PC. This description goes only so deep in any point as it was really necessary for me. This writing is created in order to give an easy guide to the beginners with general demand forUbuntu systems.

Affected topics, programs:

Important repeating expressions

Hardware


Before the installation

Motherboard BIOS update; Fan (CPU cooler); Test memory (RAM); HDD check (winchester); Using two monitors

Installation

HDD preparation

Adjustment (Setup)

First steps after installation; Driver installation for the integrated ATI video card (if necessary); Automatic login with the chosen user; Change the first weekday to Monday; Setup default applications for file types; Startup applications; Firefox, Evolution (data and setup transfer to a new machine); Update manager; Show hidden files; Edit GRUB menu; Deleting the unnecessary old kernel (images); Installing a new distribution offline; Display Processor, Memory, Network usage; Info about our hardware; Temperatures, voltages, rpm, etc. data to top panel; Auto start (on/off); Create launchers on the desktop; Fonts; Mounting NTFS-partitions; Automatic time synchronization

Programs


Gnome Commander/Krusader (Total Commander-like file browsers with two panels); File renaming in groups; RAR file handling; ISO file handling; Torrent (almost the same then utorrent); Image viewer like Irfanview (same abilities); Creating panorama pictures; 2D CAD program; Skype; Teamspeak; Video; CD/DVD writer; CD, DVD cataloguing; Partitioning, formatting; PDF printer; Flash plugin; Java install; Virus scanner; Firewall (setup); VirtualBox; C, Java, PHP, HTML... editor; FTP server; Saving entire webpages; LAMP+ PHPMyadmin (Linux, Apache2, MySQL, PHP) installation, basic setup; MS Windows layer; Remote desktop; Scanning application; Messaging client

Postscript

Comment


Hardware:

Asus sAM3 M4A785TD-V EVO
AMD AM3 Athlon II™ X4
Kingmax DDR3 FLGD 1600MHz 6Gb (2x2 + 2x1)
Fan CM Hyper TX3 s775/754/939/AM2
CORSAIR CX PSU-400CX
HDD Seagate SATA2 1,0TB 32MB Barracuda 7200.12
DVD-RW Samsung SH-S223L/BEBE OEM LightScribe SATA black
ATX Mercury M-Tech M23 Midi w/o Power Black

Before the installation

Download http://hu.asus.com/product.aspx?P_ID=fcsXWSxnhzZE9rnR#,write it any media(CD/DVD/USB). Luckily this is working also from USB/CD/DVD/HDD. When booting, press "DEL" to get to the BIOS setup and navigate to Tools > ASUS EZ FLASH 2. This gives a simple "DOS" screen where the available drivers can be found (also USB). Choose the one you downloaded and apply it.

- Temperature related working setup

Allow/setup BIOS > Power > HW monitor configuration > Smart Q-fan function > Enabled. This is the default setting (according to the handbook) but I had to switch it over manually.

- Fine setup

If we want a really silent machine, we need to put a few more steps. Setup the minimum temp. I put to this the maximum temp, which appeared as the highest temp during usual usage of the PC. This was 45°C (general temp of the CPU was 35°C). This is important because as the CPU reaches this temp, the motherboard raises the voltage of the fan and the result is (acc. to my experience) 2000 rpm of the fan, which causes higher noise. Below this temp the fan can work with 1500 rpm which is the lowest I could reach (in normal way). The slowest rpm of the CPU fan (Hyper TX3) is 800 which I wasn't able to reach, because the lowest voltage given by the motherboard results 1500 rpm. When setting up the maximum temp think about the highest working temp of the CPU (AMD AM3 Athlon II™ X4 620) which is 71°C! So my maximum temp is 60°C. These values were chosen based on the experience of using this machine for a few weeks.

Ubuntu AMD64 alternate (it is also available on the live version) install CD/USB/etc. > boot > memtest86+:
Let it work at least until 7 passes. It took 7 hours for me (6GB RAM)!

Hitachi Drive Fitness Test (quick, a few times) http://www.hitachigst.com/hdd/support/download.htm#DFTCD image
download > write to a CD/USB/etc. > boot from this > test

If we have only old analogue monitors with VGA d-sub 15pin connectors, we need an additional video card besides the one integrated into this motherboard. This one has only one analogue output and two digital (HDMI; DVI-D http://www.interfacebus.com/Design_Connector_Digital_Visual_Interface_DVI_Bus.html). To convert them to analogue is expensive and the monitors with digital inputs are also not cheap. So a new video card seems to be the cheapest usable solution. If we want to use the CrossFire technology provided by ATI which can connect the power of two cards, we need to choose the new card from the compatibility list: http://ati.amd.com/technology/crossfire/charts.html.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMD_700_chipset_series: The chipset of the motherboard card: 785G, this is practically the same as 780G but with a bit increased capability. Recommended cards: HD2400 Pro/XT, HD3450, HD3470, but theoretically all of them could be good for CrossFire, but the faster card will be limited to the capabilities of the weaker one in this case. Therefore I haven't chosen a too strong one.
My decision was (the cheapest and I have no serious gameplay demand) HD3450 which also has S-video output so I can use our old TV with it as well.


Thanks to iSi for the plenty of hardware and general support!

Installation

Unfortunately the 8.04 LTS didn't like this motherboard therefore I used the new versioun of Ubuntu 9.10 and this handles everything perfectly as I experienced.

If we want to prepare a dual boot (Ubuntu / Windows) system, than it is worth installing firstly the Win and secondly Ubuntu. In this case GRUB will be installed by default and during boot we get a menu where we can choose which system we want to start.
"Today it is not modern if we use different systems on different partitions. Their disk space needs can not be optimised, reboot is necessary etc. It is much more effective if a stable system is built with appropriate drivers, a good setup is made, and the desired another system can be run virtually." iSi

First of all (if we need it) install Win to a necessary small disk size (this should be chosen also for Win7 later): I took 45 G.

Gparted gives a friendly graphical interface in order to handle our partitions. This can be prepared during installing Ubuntu (on a simple character screen, manipulating numbers which is not a prefect approach), if we choose manual partitioning. For advanced users this is quicker but I didn't really like it. I used this instead:
Download Gparted live (it is strongly recommended that you use a stable release!)
http://sourceforge.net/projects/gparted/files/gparted-live-stable/
Download gparted-live-stable ISO file. Write it to a CD.

If you want to do it by a USB, download the zip file and use this link for advices (an installed or live Ubuntu system is needed:)
http://gparted.sourceforge.net/liveusb.php"Extract files and make USB flash drive bootable under GNU/Linux"

Just a few comments for the description there:
The USB drive is identified as "/dev/sdd1", for me it was "/dev/sdb1" but didn't worke because it was mounted automatically and got a different identifier. In this case open a file browser (Nautilus/Places). Browse this USB and click on it! In the address line above I got "/dev/462357/" and this worked fine.
For extracting the zip file you can use the "Archive Manager" by browsing and double click on this zip/tar/gz file.
The mentioned commands have to be set in Terminal.

Boot from it and you can handle your partitions in a very user-friendly way.

It is recommended to start the first line (default).
I had problem with the setup of the screen therefore I chose "Safe graphic settings, VGA=normal" line.
Keymap settings: as you like it.
Language: also.
(1) Run 'Forcevideo' to config X manually
(1) 800x600
At all another questions just press Enter. In this way you also will get a usable graphical screen where your settings can probably be adjusted.
According to my readings at least 3 partitions are suggested, but only one is crucial, but the 3 is much safer – anyway, it could be an endless discussion.
For the system "/" at least 5GB is recommended but I gave 49GB ext4 to it (9.10 can already handle ext4).
Home (all users' setup, programs, storage etc.) xxGB ext4,
linux-swap 6GB. If there is less RAM available, it is suggested to allocate the double amount of the physical RAM.

I used 9.10 AMD64 alternate CD
Download and burn to CD:
http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/download
It is strongly recommended to check the disk for defects at first! After boot: "Check disk for defects". This takes some time and informs us if our installation data is faultless.

About the entire installation:
http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/installing

During installation at partitioning steps (if we choose manual option) it is very important to setup the right mount points. This is a minimum setup:
For the system "/"=>
Use as: ext4 journaling file system;
Format yes (if there nothing to keep);
Mount point: / - the root file system;

Bootable flag: on (this will change automatically) but check it!

Partition for the users (Home) =>
Use as: ext4 journaling file system;
Format yes (if there nothing to keep);
Mount point: /home – user home directories.

Swap => Use as: swap area

About partitioning:
https://help.ubuntu.com/8.04/installation-guide/amd64/module-details.htmlPartitioning and Mount Point Selection

Adjustment (Setup)

In every case when "Terminal" is mentioned it means to start: Application > Accessories > Terminal.

This format shows the commands entered in a Terminal window.

In terminal <Ctrl + c>; <Ctrl + v> doesn't work. You can use either the right mouse click popup menu for copy/paste or simple mark the necessary text in any other window and in terminal use the middle mouse button. Press it and the marked text will be pasted to the prompt.

Our previously used commands can be reached using up/down arrows on the keyboard.

In every case when "Synaptic" is mentioned it means to start: Sytem > Administration > Synaptic package manager (asks for root password).

This format shows what to type (one by one) into Synaptic (quick)search field. Right click on the squares at the beginning of the appearing lines (with the same name). Mark them for install and accept all additional packages that the system recommends for right dependencies. Then Apply, OK.


sudo means we are using the rights of the system administrator during the command used after it. In this situation be very careful because the system can be harmed.

If you have a working net connection, Update Manager will pop up shortly. It is recommended to install all suggested packages (admin password is necessary). This will download and install all changed packages since the original release. Manually this can be triggered through: System > Administration > Update Manager.



In the meantime an icon appeared in the right top corner: 'Restricted drivers are available'. Click on it and allow the restricted ATI driver for the integrated video card. This will download and install the necessary programs for it. Reboot.
Manually you can find this option as well: System > Administration > Hardware Drivers (password).

http://support.amd.com/us/gpudownload/linux/Pages/radeon_linux.aspx?type=2.4.2&product=2.4.2.3.32&lang=English
Download the driver. I got this file: <<ati-driver-installer-9-11-x86.x86_64.run>>
Open
Terminal:

sudo -i

(give your password, you are working now as root. Be careful!)
Navigate to the downloaded file:

cd /home/username/your download folder

Put this command (after bash you need to give the right name of the downloaded package):

bash ati-driver-installer-9-11-x86.x86_64.run

In the graphical menu choose which you want. Install driver xxxx. After it is finished: System > Administration > Hardware Drivers (password). Our fresh installed driver should appear here. Enable it and restart. In the application menu 2 more points appeared: ATI Catalyst Control Center, and ATI Catalyst Control Center Administrative, where all other setups can be made in a nice graphical interface.
If something goes totally wrong and we get only 800x600 screen resolution after restart, reboot again, choose recovery in grub menu.
Xorg
Resume to normal boot. In the best case we can get back our original screen setup.

System > Administration > Login screen > unlock (password): Login as * automatically. Choose the user here and this user will be logged in automatically during every startup.

http://myy.haaga-helia.fi/~karte/english_in_finland_on_ubuntu.html
Open
Terminal

sudo nautilus

(Nautilus starts as root. Be careful!)
Open /etc/environment
Put a new line and paste this: LC_TIME="en_DK.UTF-8" Save the file. Log out, log in and your first weekday is now Monday.

Open Nautilus (or just click Places and choose any folder you need), right-click on the file you want to change > Properties > Open with > choose your desired application.

Starting with the system: System > Preferences > Startup applications: Add > command:
For example Ktorrent:"/usr/bin/ktorrent" If the executable is in /usr/bin folder enough only the executable file name. If you use
-m parameter, the window of the application will not popup only placed to top panel. Further automatic start/not start possibility.

If we already used Ubuntu, all of our Firefox setup, history, bookmarks; and Evolution e-mails, rules etc. can be saved:
Copy from your old PC the /home/user/.mozilla and /home/user/.evolution folders and paste them into the /home/user folder of the new system.

Show hidden files

Start Nautilus: click on Places > Home folder. Go to View > Show Hidden files. Check this menu entry. All folders starting with "." become visible.
Copy the mentioned folders from the old PC and paste them onto new one. Don't worry if you haven't found these folders on the new machine. These folders are created at first usage of these programs (Firefox, Evolution). Before you start these programs paste these folders to the home folder. In this way we get the used setup also at first start of these programs. Evolution will ask to set up the e-mail addresses, server, authentication etc. data required at first startup).

It is worth installing all available updates recommended by the Update manager.

As root open the file: /boot/grub/grub.cfg Terminal>

sudo gedit grub.cfg

After updating the system the old kernels are not deleted automatically. These are listed in Grub menu until you delete or uncomment them. For uncommenting it is needed to put a "#" at the beginning of each line wanted to be hidden in the boot menu.
This file is read-only, therefore before saving it, do the following:
Terminal>

sudo nautilus

(password necessary) Find this file and > right-click on it > Properties > Permissions > Owner: root => Access: read and write. So the file was set to writeable and we can save the changes we made. Be careful when uncommenting a menu entry. It is necessary to uncomment all the lines belonging to a menu entry from "Menuentry ...{" line to the final "}" line.

http://tombuntu.com/index.php/2007/10/17/remove-ubuntu-kernels-you-dont-need/

The above article in nutshell: Terminal>

uname -r

This will show the number of the used kernel. for example: 2.6.20-16-generic

Start Synaptic>

linux

All installed kernel versions we are listed. At the beginning (linux-image-2*) there are green squares. If you want to delete one of them, right-click on it and "mark for removal".

Attention! Do not remove the version you got after uname -r in Terminal! In the example 2.6.20-16-generic, because this will kill your system!

There are new distributions in every half a year (except LTS versions). If we do not insist on an online installation, download firstly the new ISO file and we can install the new system also from CD/USB drive. http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/upgrading.

Firstly download (if possible, use torrent) the right ("alternate") version you need. Write it to a USB drive: System > Administration > USB Startup disk creator.
We need to "tell" our system to handle this USB as a CD-ROM. Terminal

sudo fdisk -l

This will give us a list about the available drivers. In my case the USB has /dev/sdc1 identification.
Set USB as CD-ROM: Terminal >

sudo mount -o loop /dev/sdc1 /media/cdrom0

If our system does not start a system update window automatically, Terminal

gksu sh /cdrom/cdromupgrade

Answer to the appearing questions and the new system will be installed.

Right click on top panel > Add to panel > System monitor. Right click on the appeared indicator icon > Preferences. You can set here what to display.

http://www.ubuntugeek.com/howto-get-your-system-information-with-sysinfo.html
Synaptic>

sysinfo

Application > System Tools > Sysinfo: On a graphical interface we can get some info about the hardware.

Synaptic>

hardinfo

Application > System Tools > System profiler and benchmark: On a graphical interface we can get some more info.

Terminal>

sudo dmidecode | more

(password) Plenty of information about our hardware. I got also the serial of my motherboard as well. There are listed a lot of data in Terminal. http://ubuntuforums.org/archive/index.php/t-1014603.html

Another solution by Snandi's advice:

sudo lshw

Some packages have to be installed for this, if our motherboard supports these features. Synaptic>

lm-sensors

sensors-applet

sensord

The popup hddtemp starts at boot if you wish. http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/howto-monitor-hard-drive-temperature.htmlOpen up Terminal>

sudo sensors-detect

Yes, OK, Enter for all questions and reboot. Right-click on the top panel. Add to panel > Hardware Sensors Monitor.temp.
It was not successful for me at first because the k10 sensor was not really supported by the actual lm-sensors. But the solution was already available in the newest release of lm-sensors which were not included in Ubuntu repositories at that time. This worked for me as follows:

Download the newest lm-sensors release
http://lm-sensors.org/wiki/DownloadI got this file: <<lm_sensors-3.1.1.tar.bz2>> Find it in a browser (Places/Download/ or wherever you saved it). Choose it and press Enter. Archive manager will open the file. Click on the folder in the opened package and Extract. So you have a folder where you downloaded this file: "lm_sensors-3.1.1". There are readme and install files in it which give us advice how to install.
There are packages listed in the install file which are necessary for the right work of lm-sensor. Dependencies. Open
Synapticand try to install the listed packages one by one. I found these and installed them:

gcc,

bison,

flex,

rrdtool,

These were enough. Open a Terminaland browse to the extracted folder:

cd /home/your user name/your download folder/lm_sensors-3.1.1

sudo make all

There will be some failure notice but do not worry about it.

sudo make install

There will be a few warnings. These are among "****** ******" lines and at the end of them (one by one) there is a command to execute manually in Terminal. Go through all warnings and use the recommended commands. Put in the beginning of all these commands: sudo. I had 3 of it and 2 times /sbin/ldconfig
In
Terminal:

sensors

All sensors will be appear detected and all of them can be handled by Hardware Sensors Monitor on the top panel.

Ttf-liberation

ttf-droid

sudo apt-get install ntfs-config

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/MountingWindowsPartitions?action=show&redirect=MountingWindowsPartitions/ThirdPartyNTFS3G

The installed application is available: System > Administration > NTFS configuration tool

System > Administration > Time and Date > Click to make changes

Configuration > Keep synchronized with Internet servers

If NTP support not already installed you need to accept installing it.

Time servers line appears and time server can be chosen or added. In Hungary time.kfki.hu is recommended.

Programs

To install most of the mentioned programs use Sytem > Administration > Synaptic package manager (root password necessary). All the here mentioned programs have nice graphical interface so their handling is simple and you do not need to be a hardcore programmer.

The newly installed programs will appear not on the desktop but in the menu above. They can be simply dragged and dropped to the desktop later.

Programs from KDE (Krusader, K3b, Amarok) can install also their dependencies, which can be noticed, but I haven't experienced anything.

GNOME Commander,

Krusader.

Krename

rar

unrar

furiusisomount

kiso

ktorrent

gthumb

hugin

qcad

Download the installer from here: http://www.skype.com/download/skype/linux/choose/
I got this file: <<skype-ubuntu-intrepid_2.1.0.47-1_amd64.deb>>. This is a "deb" package which is an automatic installer, just Enter or double click on it (root password is also necessary).

Teamspeak-client,

teamspeak-server.

The teamspeak-server will always be started with the system. If you want to avoid it, move the file from /etc/init.d/ to /etc/init.d/noauto/ folder as it is written at LAMP. "Start by demand solution" can be found also at LAMP.

devede

avidemux

Gxine;

mplayer;

vlc

amarok

K3b

gwhere

gparted

cups-pdf

Application > Ubuntu software center > search field: flashplugin. Choose the appearing line and install. http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntu/flash
Alternate:
Synaptic>

flashplugin-installer

Restart Firefox.

sun-java6-bin,

sun-java6-plugin

clamtk

From the right homepages Avast, Bitdefender etc. can be downloaded, which offer free and graphical interfaced programs.

gufw

http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Linux_DownloadsDownload the latest 'deb' file. Browse it, start it (Enter or double click). At the question about kernel modul just press Next.
Browse to the end of terms of use and the "Accept" button will be applicable. It is necessary to be registered at Sun (You can register now or use your existing data).
Start it and install a windows XP:
Application > System tools > Sun Virtualbox
New > next > Name: XP; OS: Microsoft Windows; Ver: WinddowsXP > next
RAM assigned to this virtual machine (later can be changed) according to my above configuration: 1GB
Boot hard disk > create new hard disk. It is creating the winchester of this virtual machine which is an image file at the chosen folder.
Next > Dinamically expanded storage. The size of our winchester can be dinamically changed.
Location XP, do not change it only if you want to place it somewhere else than the default: /home/user./Virtualbox/HardDisks/xp.vdi . I set 10GB (later it can be changed)
Finish
So we set the "hardware" of our virtual machine.
At Details tab we can set our finer settings, how and what can this virtual machine (VM) use.
If we have enough video RAM, we can give more to this VM because the default is only 4MB. At these settings keep the balance between the demands of the VM and your host machine.
Hard disk: if we have SATA HDD, allow SATA driver.
For Win XP (32bit) it is not recommended to assign more than one CPU cores (I tried but the VM becomes extremely slow).

If we allow more cores (Win7), we can get "VT-x is not available" failure at VM startup.
http://forums.virtualbox.org/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=24379We need to allow in our BIOS (host) the following: Advanced > CPU configuratiom > Secure virtual machine mode > Enable. Boot and we can install any new systems with more cores.
If we want to install from CD, click on CD/DVD-ROM menu and allow it. If we want to use image file, browse it here.
Folder sharing with the host machine: Shared folders > "+" to browse them.
Click on "Start" icon and start the installation of any system to VM.
To choose VM and the host (mouse, keyboard activity) "right Ctrl" can be used, but it works automatically.
Important: Devices > Install guest additions. This have to be installed to our VM, so it will be able to cooperate with the host system. Find this in the installed VM and let it run/install.
The shared folders can be reached through network, guest addons folders.

In case of Win7 2G RAM and 2 cores are suggested in this (above) configuration.

geany

proftpd

Webhttrack

Apache2

PHP5

mysql-server

phpmyadmin


In the popup window provide the wanted password to your MySQL server.
Choose a server to phpmyadmin > apache2, because we installed Apache on this purpose.
PHPmyadmin config: enter mysql password.
The installation is done.

Auto start (on/off)

Apache2 and MySQL are placed in the folder which starts automatically at every startup: /etc/init.d It is not wanted to start them always at startup, therefore I created a "noauto" folder here. Terminal>

sudo nautilus

(password) Be careful, you are root!
Browse to /etc/init.d, create new folder > noauto
Move these 2 files to this newly created folder ("noauto").

Create launchers on the desktop

To start the moved (any executable) files by a launcher: on the desktop > right click > Create launcher:
Type: Application;
Name (this will be visible): Apache2 start/stop/restart (one by one - for one launcher only one of them);
Command: gksudo /etc/init.d/noauto/apache2 start/stop/restart (one by one - for one launcher only one of them);
Comment: as you like;
So we have 3 icons which can start/stop/restart the application by our demands by clicking on them. After that we can do the same with MySQL. If we click on the icons, a popup window follows (if the system needs it) where our password has to be entered and the program will run.
Available icons by default: /usr/share/icons

Start a file browser as root!
Terminal>

sudo nautilus

(password) Copy the /usr/share/phpmyadmin folder and paste into /var/www folder. This has to be done in every case when phpmyadmin update arrives, if we want to use the updated files. Start apache2, MySQL and Firefox. Write localhost/phpmyadmin.
Username: root; Password: provided by you during installation.
I received a failure:
Connection for controluser as defined in your configuration failed. Use the file browser already opened as root.

Open /etc/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php and uncomment (put at the beginning of the line a "#" or "//" characters) the line where "controluser" found

Import bigger file size than default: open file as root.
/etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
upload_max_filesize = 2M;
post_max_size = 8M.
These values can be changed to bigger size, for example: 12 or by demand. Restart MySQL, Apache2.

Some Apache2 setup tricks
Open file as root: /etc/apache2/sites-available/default. Modify if necessary:
DocumentRoot /var/www. When opening "localhost", the content of this folder will be displayed.
Another solution:

Put a simlink to the default folder which points to the wanted place:. Terminal>

sudo ln -s /home/username/I want here the localhost/index.html /var/www/index.php

In the "default" file the following <Directory /var/www/> group changes the AllowOverride directive from the default None to All if we want to use the .htaccess solution to set Apache folder by folder.

If we want to see all warnings/failures during the execution of PHP codes (during improve phase it is very useful/important), start a file browser as root, open /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini file. Find the "Error handling and logging" part and change the default setup (error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE) to "error_reporting = E_ALL". In this case the uncomment lines begin here with ";". Restart Apache2 after saving in order that the changes take effect.

wine

We get a limited possibility to run programs made for MS Windows.
Creating desktop startup icons for programs installed in Wine (for example Gib3 dictionary).

At first install the program. File browser > browse for installer.exe > right click on it > run by Wine program loader.
Desktop > right click > Create launcher:
Type: Application;
Name (this will appear): Gib3;
command: wine start "\\home\user name\.wine\drive_c\Program Files\GIB30\GIB30_32.exe" Thequotation marks and backslash "\" signs are important, letters are case-sensitive.
Comment: as you like;

The programs installed in Wine can be started also from the Applications > Wine menu.

http://www.ubuntugeek.com/how-to-use-remote-desktop-in-ubuntu-810-intrepid-ibex.html

gnomescan

pidgin


Postscript

I need to emphasize that this writing is about my simple experience on the above listed configuration, it does not incorporate my "huge" knowledge. All of it is collected from the internet from gear guys, communities, as far as I understood them.


07.10.2010 Lev, Anibell

Lectured by N agent


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